Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Alcohol Consumption in College for Diabetics :: Diabetes Alcohol

Alcohol Consumption in College So, you’re in college now and you want to enjoy the â€Å"full college experience.† For many people, a very large part of this experience involves alcohol. Diabetics need to be careful when consuming alcohol because diabetes and alcohol can potentially be a very dangerous and even deadly combination. If you do decide to drink, please do so responsibly because drinking until you are â€Å"stupid† not only harms you, but it puts a lot of stress on friendships; who will bring you out of that seizure or fainting spell that was brought on by the hypoglycemia that resulted from drinking too much without eating first? Whoever it is will not appreciate having to do so.* What happens when a person with diabetes ingests alcohol? One study showed that when an alcoholic beverage was ingested with an evening meal, there may be a delayed hypoglycemic episode the morning after, or up to 16 hours after ingestions. However, there was no acute event of hypoglycemia immediately after ingesting alcohol WITH a meal. (Richardson et al. 2005) On the other hand, alcohol on an empty stomach increases the risks of hypoglycemia in several ways. First, ingestion of even small amounts may impair the ability of the individual to detect the onset of hypoglycemia at a stage when they are still able to take appropriate action, i.e., eat carbohydrates. Second, hypoglycemia per se may be mistaken for intoxication by third parties with legal as well as health consequences. Third, alcohol has been shown in some studies to directly impair the hormonal counterregulatory responses to low blood glucose levels (4). Fourth, recent data indicate that small amounts of alcohol can augment the cognitive deficits associated with hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes (5). (Richardson et al. 2005) Anyway, if you drink responsibly, everyone will surely have a good time. For a slightly more comprehensive write-up, visit: http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/alcohol.jsp *On a side note, just taking care of yourself is important for that reason, too. I have talked to people who have had to take care of their friends/boyfriends/girlfriends who wouldn’t take care of themselves, and these people were basically glad to get out of the relationships they had with these people with diabetes because it was too much stress.

Monday, January 13, 2020

First Generations

In her book First Generations, Carol Berkin basically aims to show the readers the power of women which can be traced through our history. Differentiating itself from traditional historical texts, studies, and researches, the book does not omit the valid experiences of women during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It wants to show that women of all races -European, Indian, and African- were critical components of 17th- and 18th-century American history.As such, the author tried to examine the various cultures, ideologies, belief and political systems that were present during those early times in relation to the roles and norms that enveloped women. With this goal at hand, she tried to find evidences and narrative accounts of the lives of ordinary women. She tried to figure out how these ordinary lives were governed, affected, and altered by the varying social expectations about women.Through all of this, Berkin tries to emphasize that women were active partakers in the makin g of history and the alteration of social norms, values, and systems even at a time when they were denied of equal rights. The book’s efficacy in providing deeper knowledge of American Culture To identify the efficacy of a classified historical narrative and exploration, the bases that will be used are the conciseness of the narrative, and its accuracy.Basically, the book presented a complete and concise narrative since it presented a multicultural setting as it tackles the experiences of women from various cultural and racial backgrounds. It involves the analyses of women of European, Indian, and African originalities. However, the book does not stop at carefully delineating women through their race and culture. Instead, Berkin moves a step higher in careful analysis and examination as she explores not only the popular and prominent women from the various cultural originalities.She presents a book which explores the lives of women through the varied roles that they perform- as wives, as daughters, as mothers, and as social participants- in relation to their occupation and social class. A particular example is Berkin’s citation of Margaret Hardenbroeck, a trader. Berkin was able to track down the life of Hardenbroeck, and illustrate how her colonial life as a businesswoman was altered by English colonization of Netherlands. In the book, Hardenbroeck’s economic problems, legal rights, and socially-related issues were examined in relation to what her husband have experienced.By doing so, Berkin was able to demonstrate the differences among the social expectations and pressures between a man and a woman. Another identity that Berkin also examined in the book was Eliza Lucas Pinckney. Unlike Hardenbroeck, Pickney was not very exposed to matters of businesses, colonization, and governmental restrictions at first. Instead, she was constantly struggling to fulfill her domestic responsibilities that were traditionally assigned to women. By these, it means that Pinckney was more concerned and burdened with her roles as a wife, a mother, and a daughter.However, economic circumstances prompted her to adopt expertise in entrepreneurship as she later became the proprietor of her father’s and late husband’s plantations. Berkjin narrates that overtime, Pinckney then developed â€Å"a consciousness of self and a confidence in reason† which she garnered from her education. Through these two, Berkin made a valid conclusion when she pointed out that social class altered the supposed to be gender-specific roles of colonial American society.In the case of accuracy, it can be observed that Berkin lacked primary materials. As such, she tried to overcome the scarcity of primary sources through thorough research and cross-checking with secondary sources. She even acknowledges the said issue when she stated that though â€Å"studies of New England marriage patterns based on diaries and letters and studies of Chesapeake m arriage patterns drawn from demographic data are equally valid,† such cannot be used for a carefully derived cross-culture comparison.However, it seems that her lapse in conclusive data should not be regarded as an important component in her descriptive analysis of the daily lives of women from various geographic regions. It appears that the careful analysis of women of varied social class, racial background, and geographic location during those times is accurate enough to guarantee that the narrative is a well-researched work fit for collections on women studies.As such, the book gave its readers a deeper knowledge of American culture since it was able to touch on a rarely tackled historical subject and component- women. Moreover, the historical exploration that it presented was rather seemingly complete narrative of women history as Berkin explored marriage, motherhood, social interaction, labor, and beliefs. To add to that, the exploration was done in a compare and contrast manner between the social experiences and pressures faced by men and women.Thus, it was clear why women garnered different roles and patterns of empowerment and development from men. Overall, the book demonstrated that women were important factors in history creation and societal alteration. REFERENCES Berkin, Carol (1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. First Generations by Carol Berkin. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from www. powells. com/cgi-bin/biblio? inkey=62-9780809016068-0 First Generations by Carol Berkin. Retrieved January 31, 2008 from http://search. barnesandnoble. com/booksearch/isbnInquiry. asp? z=y&endeca=1&isbn=0809016060&itm=2#TABS

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Are Children Growing Up Too fast Essay - 693 Words

ESSAY – ARE CHILDREN GROWING UP TOO FAST? I. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION A multiplicity of literature is available through recent researches which suggest that the current generation of teenagers is very different from children their ages in the past, given new manifestations in their behaviors when compared with their previous generations. Is this true or not? A compelling argument will be made by this Author to show that in his perception that children are growing up too fast. THESIS STATEMENT An examination of trends in current teenage behavior; in order to prove that children are growing up too fast. II. SECTION 2 MAIN BODY Hymowitz (1998) discussed his experiences of a daughter who in his generalised assessment â€Å"morphed†¦show more content†¦My own experiences having raised three children, two girls and a boy have shown that access by them to technology such as the computer, other technological devices and access to the internet and television programming have contributed to aspects of their own self development which were not available to their predecessors and in my own considered judgment, based on these developments allow for a level of maturity beyond their young ages. Given the observations on growing p too fast, as discussed above and inclusive of research and findings by Hymowitz (1998) which articulated on trends observed n the society in which his daughter grew up, supporting discussions by the Sunday Sun ( 2011); Hughes (2009); Wilson ( 2008) and my own experiences in observing the phenomena of children maturing at an earlier age than their predecessors, I submit and support the thesis statement that children are growing up much faster currently than their predecessors based on the evidence provided in the discussion which support such conclusions. III. SECTION 3 CONCLUSION The phenomena of young children developing a more matured status as opposed to their predecessors have been noted by a number of researchers. 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Others like the Center for Consumer Freedom, would argue that it is not only their choice to eat healthy or unhealthy but also every individuals right as Americans to make that choice without the interferenceRead MoreEssay about eating disorder1347 Words   |  6 Pagesthere a strong connection between the fast food industry and the growing rate of obesity among young children? The answer is yes- fast food consumption is a large contributor to increasing child obesity risks and the effects of long-term health problems in the future. Children are bombarded by fast food advertising on a daily basis which lure them into wanting fast foods in addition to the great taste. The rapid growth of child obesity is in step with the growin g fast food chains and market. The realizationRead More Childhood Obesity Essay1742 Words   |  7 Pagessmoking. If current trends continue, today’s kids could be the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents (Clinton, para. 3 2011). Children may not understand the complexities of food intake or obesity but they continue to be affected by the issue. The reality is that if a parent enables their kids to make poor eating choices as children; they will struggle as adults to make the right eating choices. Many factors contribute to childhood obesity but the major factors are living sedentaryRead MoreTeen Obesity Essay1378 Words   |  6 Pagesincreasing especially in the United States. It has now become one of the most serious health challenges of the 21st century according to unitypoint.org. In the last 3 decades, teen obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled among adolescents. Why you might ask. Well, children become overweight and obese for a variety of reasons. The most common causes are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Mr. Jones Clinical Reasoning Cycle - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2623 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? Introduction Nursing practitioners with effective reasoning skills always have a positive impact on the patient’s outcome. Conversely, nurses with poor clinical reasoning skills have a high potential of failing to detect the impending patient deterioration either from drug-body interactions or normal â€Å"failure to rescue.† These issues have resulted in increased number of escalating healthcare complaints in the ever expanding population of seniors (Levett-Jones Bourgeois, 2014). According to Alfaro-LeFevre (2009), there are three primary reasons for the adverse patient outcomes experienced in almost all health care provider institutions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Mr. Jones Clinical Reasoning Cycle" essay for you Create order These reasons are: the failure to properly diagnose, the failure to institute appropriate medication and treatment and application of inappropriate management strategies of the presented complications (Alfaro-LeFevre, 2009). All these factors are directly related to the poor clinical reasoning skills. For that reason, Rubenfeld Scheffer (2006) suggests that education system must promote the recognition and management of deteriorating patients. Furthermore, nursing practitioners must be in a position to utilize different communication channels, a collaboration of inter-professional teams and escalation systems in order to achieve accurate and quality service delivery to patients (Rubenfeld Scheffer, 2006). One way of attaining this is by implementing the clinical Reasoning cycle (Levett-Jones Bourgeois, 2014). While putting this information in mind, this paper will utilize the Clinical Reasoning Cycle in reviewing and planning care for a patient named Mr. Jones.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Consider the Patient According to Levett-Jones et al. (2014), considering the patient is the stage of the Clinical reasoning cycle. In this stage, the nurse encounters the individual who is the recipient of the care and starts to gain an initial impression (Levett-Jones et al., 2014). According to Tanner (2006), this may happen as a result of hearing a report [handover] or by a notice when the patient is first observed (Tanner, 2006). Therefore, while conducting the first impression on Mr. Jones, it is critical noting that prior preconceptions and assumptions may have influenced some of the information in this stage. Furthermore, at this stage, the patient condition is viewed against the background of their historicity and within the institutions of care ability. Now, Mr. Jones 86 years of age was bought to the hospital after he was found wandering up and down his streets by a close neighbor. Furthermore, his limping and has a favoring in his left side. Blood strains are evident in his socks and paints. A skin tear is also visible in his left shin. Following this, he has been placed on bed rest for later assessment using X-ray to ascertain whether he has any fractures because he thinks that he fell over, but he is not certain about that. In relation to this, the patient complained of pain of pain originating from his left hip spreading down to the leg where he has a laceration following the fall.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Collect Cues and Information This stage involves collecting relevant information regarding Mr. Jones. Furthermore, it will involve reviewing patient’s information that is available in his documented history, nursing notes, clinical documentations and handover reports. From the reports, Mr. Jones is under medications such as Irbesartan 150mg PO daily. According to Drugs.com (2017), Irbesartan is mostly used in the treatment of high blood pressure (Ace Inhibitors) (hypertension). With this medication, it is clear that Mr. Jones has a history of hypertension. Additionally, he came in with Metformin 1000mg PO Daily. This drug is used in improving blood sugars and mostly in individuals having type 2 diabetes. For that reason, there are increased chances that Mr. Jones has type 2 diabetes. Also, he had Salbutamol metered dose inhaler 1-2 puffs every 4-6 hours and which is mostly used in preventing and treating bronchospasm in patients with bronchitis, lung related diseases, emphysema, and asthma. Based on the presence of these drugs more scrutiny is needed to define whether he actually suffers from any of that disease. Additionally, Mr. Jones had Symbicort Turbuhaler 160/4.5mcg 2 inhalations BD, a drug that is mostly used in preventing bronchospasm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Therefore, while combining the presence of Symbicort Turbuhaler 160/4.5mcg 2 inhalations BD and Salbutamol metered dose inhaler 1-2 puffs every 4-6 hours there is higher likelihood that Mr. Jones has a respiratory related disease. Finally, he complained hip and leg pain and which gives the reason why there are Paracetamols in his drug list. Paracetamols are mostly used as pain and fever relievers; therefore, there are increased chances that Mr. Jones may be feeling some pain on different body parts. Apart from this data, new information gathered from observations of Mr. Jones shows that: He 177 cm tall and has a weight of 125 kgs translating to a BMI of 39.9, Blood Pressure 165/95 mmHg, T 37.9C, P 105 bpm and R 24 breathes per minute. Additionally, Mr. Jones has a Pain score of 7/10, location located at left hip and leg. Other than these, he has three skin tear, a Waterlow score of 16, High fall score risks of 17 and GCS 14 having normal power in the right leg, mild weaknesses in the left leg. Finally, his pupils are equal and reacting in a sluggish manner. However, he has not opened his bowels for the last two days (BNO x Day 2). According to Alfaro-LeFevre (2017), it is important for the nursing practitioner in a change to recall some knowledge from Law, therapeutic, cultural context, physiology, and pathology in relation to the patient (Mr. Jones case). First, Mr. Jones wife died two months ago. This may be related to depression and stress resulting in lack of the ability to eat hence lowered bowel movements. Blood Pressure and hypertension are linked to the fluid status in the patient’s body (Alfaro-LeFevre, 2017). Additionally, Mr. Jones lives in a single Story House and which has two steps at the entrance. Therefore, due to the pain in his hip and leg, it may be related to the event where he was found wandering up and down his street by the neighbor. In the ward where Mr. Jones is hosted before an X-ray is conducted, there are standing orders that must be followed by the patients and the relatives or any individual connected to the patient. Before anything is done on the patient’s body, his children must visit the hospital, listen to the consent files and accept whether they agree on the procedures that the nurses and doctors aim to use on their father. Additionally, the nurse must inform the patient on all the possible medical procedures that will be taken to ascertain the real cause of the challenges and problems he is facing. These standing laws are to be observed as they will save the hospital from any possible law suits originating from human rights or family members.   Ã‚   Process Information According to Levett-Jones et al. (2014), all the cues and patient data collected in the above phase are carefully analyzed. Any aberration from the normal is identified and highlighted. Furthermore, cues patterns and clustered are recognized, inferences created and hypotheses generated (Levett-Jones et al., 2014). Simply, the patient’s situation is compared with previous clinical presentations thereby giving the nursing practitioner an opportunity to anticipate possible outcomes with regard to the available course of action. According to Alfaro-Le Fevre (2009), thinking ahead or rather predicting outcomes helps in knowing possible results of understanding certain procedures. Analyze the cues/Data to come to a stable understanding of Mr. Jones Signs and Symptoms. [Comparing the normal vs. Abnormal] Interpretation Normal blood pressure should not go over 120/80 and 140/90. Therefore, it is clear that Mr. Jones has high blood pressure. Furthermore, his skin tear is placed under category three where the skin flap is completely absent. Therefore, while following this information, the blood stains on his leg and pants may have originated from this skin tear. Also, Mr. Jones score 16 in Waterlow and which places him under high risk of developing pressure sores. With a fall risk score of 17, it means that Mr. Jones is susceptible to falls and therefore there is need to check the x-rays for any potential fractures. Mr. Jones has a GCS 14 with normal power in his right leg and mild weakness in the left. His pupils are equal however they are reacting sluggishly. A score of 14 implies that he is a having a mild dysfunction. This implies that his conscious state as a person has mild dysfunction. Mr. Jones is 177 cm tall and Weighs 12kgs. This means that his BMI is actually 39.9. According to World Health Organization, individuals with a BMI of 30 and over are classified as observed obese. In most cases, senior individuals and who are obese and hypertensive have a higher chance of having diabetes, eye problems and hear problems. Therefore, Mr. Jones BMI index opens a clearer path to securitizing some of the co-morbidities that he is currently suffering from. While still connecting Mr. Jones age of 86 with his BP 165/95 mmHg. Additionally, the patient had, T 37.9C, P 105 bpm, R 24 breathes per minute. Because the normal blood pressure is less than or equal to 120/80 mm Hg, then Mr. Jones is above the normal with 165/95 hence labeling him as hypertension. While looking at the textbook, the normal temperature is between 36 to 38, Mr. Jones’s temperature stands at 37.9 and which labeled as high temperature. On the other hand, the Pulse for adults should stand at an average of 70 (60-100). Mr. Jones pulse rate stands at 105. This implies that his pulse is way before normal. Finally, from the textbook, an older adult should have an average of 16 in his or her respiratory rate. While comparing his respiratory rate [24] and what is highlighted in the textbook, he may be suffering from tachypnea a condition where an individual suffers from faster respirations. Discriminate: This involves distinguishing relevant from the irrelevant information. Furthermore, it involves recognizing the inconsistences in the data in order to narrow down the information to levels where the gaps in the cues is collected. Based on Mr. Jones age, his temperature is up but, the nursing practitioner is not too worried about it. However, more concern is directed towards the Blood Pressure and the Pulse. For that reason, it’s good to check oxygen sats in the blood as well as the urine output. The text on the urine output will be to measure the glucose output.   This information will help in correlating the GCS 14 his individual level of consciousness. Relating the Cues At this sublevel, the nursing practitioner is expected to discover new relations within the information and cues. It also helps in identifying the relationships that exist between the data. For instance, Mr. Jones high respiratory rate, pulse and blood pressure may result in the experienced GCS 14. Furthermore, with a category three of the wound, the blood paints have a higher possibility of originating from this site. Also, all the medications that Mr. Jones came with to the hospital prove the fact that the mentioned co-morbidities of Asthma, Type 2 diabetes, Hypertension and Arthritis are evident. Finally, the fact that Mr. Jones bowels have not opened for 2 last days may be linked to two main factors. First, Mr. Jones wife died a few months ago, therefore, he may be suffering from loneliness and stress and which have a possibility of halting his digestion ability. Additionally, based on his current age, his digestion may be weak to digest the take away and frozen meals that he has been depending on. For those reasons, the bowel movements problems are more likely to be associated with these factors. Infer This involves making deductions while forming opinions that follow the logic by interpreting the subjective and objective cues. For instance, in Mr. Jones case, his pulse rate and respiratory rate could be higher based on the tension and stress that he has been exposed to in his old age. Furthermore, the wound may be breeding from lack of attendance. Finally, his blood pressure could be low due to the amount of blood lost through the wound. The fact is that his pants were wet with blood. Match Situations According to World Health Organization, elderly individuals are at risk of suffering from hypertension, diabetes and difficulties in bowel movement. For that reason, some of the challenges facing Mr. Jones are connected. Furthermore, as individuals get older, their body muscles become weaker and which exposes them to risks of fractures or falls. For that reason, the pain that Mr. Jones is experiencing in his hip may be originating from either a fall he experienced a few days ago. Following the fact that he’s old, there are increased chances of losing memory and which means that he has a potential of forgetting what happened in his life. Predicting the Outcomes Based on the nature of Mr. Jones, if he is not taken for X-ray scans, there is higher chance that the case of the pain in his hip may deteriorate. Furthermore, based on his condition, if he is not placed on fluids, there are increased chances that he may get a shock. To understand the nature of his bowel movements, Mr. Jones will be given some vegetable dish. The roughage will be focused on checking whether his bowels will open after getting exposed to fluids. Finally, due to his increased pulse rate and respiratory rate, Mr. Jones will be given behavioral therapy that will work in coming down his stress and depression levels. This is because, with hypertension and higher pulse rate, there are increased chances of facing challenges in breathing or even stroke. Cleaning the wound helps in lowering the bacteria and which works in reducing the pain originating from the wound.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Evaluation According to Levett-Jones et al. (2014), this stage involves the nursing practitioner re-evaluating the patient’s cues and the current status so as to determine the most effective nursing interventions and whether the patient’s condition has been improved. First, to lower the patient’s pain originating from the wound, lowering the infection has proved to be an effective intervention for the patient. It has initiated the healing process as well as lowering the pain experienced by the patient. After administering narcotics and antibiotics to the patients, another measure of the pain level showed 3/10. This score confirms that the pain has completely reduced. Secondly, offering fluids and treating the wound has worked in lowering the pressure and the blood pressure the patient was initiated exposed. Addition, use of drugs to control hypertension, diabetes and pulse rates were very effective in stabilizing the condition of the patient helping help to adopt a smooth r oute to healing. The X-ray proved that the patient did not have any fracture; however, the hip bone was somehow dislocated. Therefore, the physicians placed the patient under therapy to return the bones to normal. All in all, the interventions adopted by the nursing practitioners with help from senior doctors, Mr. Jones health status has begun returning to normal   Ã‚  Ã‚   Reflect on Process and New Learning Levett-Jones et al. (2014) place this last stage as a reflection stage. It offers a suitable opportunity to review the practice. This step provides a chance to refine the processes, change or improve the interventions. In this case, Cognitive Behavior Therapy will be included to improve the healing process of Mr. Jones based on the fact that he is a senior and has a chance of suffering from mental disorders and eating disorders. Next time, while dealing with such a senior patient, the first step will be including their family members into play. This will ensure that the hospital and the senior’s family work in collaboration in dealing with potential challenges that have a possibility of affecting the patient in future. Finally, if I had the skills in Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavior therapy, I would have provided therapy to allow the patient to change attitude and emotions following the death of his wife. This would help in improving the healing process of the senior pa tient.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Beat the Market Game Report Essay - 4202 Words

ROCHESTER INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY SAUNDERS COLLEGE OF BUSINESS SPRING QUARTER 2012-2013 ECONOMIC FOR MANAGERS BTM Game Analysis Report Firm 1 Binal Patel Kun Liao Ling Xiao Lei Wella Mohibi Yi xin Huang 1 1) Table of Contents 2) Introduction and Summary Our performance in BTM game Market structure analysis Strategies of our firm 3) Analysis of our problems in the BTM game MC and MR Plant size Price elasticity Training and process improvement advertising, product development and E-commerce 4) How to improve our performance in the future Macroeconomic analysis Competitor analysis Payoff matrix Kinked demand 5) Conclusion 2 1. Introduction and Summary Our performance in BTM game Our†¦show more content†¦In oligopoly market, each firm has substantial market power with high degree of interdependence. The key for success in a oligopoly market is to gain more market share than the competitors. Increasing the price can lead to loss of market share to the competitors, so in the oligopoly market, if a firm decreases the price, the other firms will always follow, but if a firm increase the price, the other firms will not follow. The demand curve is kinked. However, lowering the price decreases the overall profit of the market thus, non-price competition is most important win-win strategy for all the firm. As the game, does not allow us to make product differentiation, the other method that can increase the sales are advertising, product development and E-commerce enhancement. If these expenditures are below market average level, the firm can lose the market share. 4 Besides, decreasing the production cost is also important as the firm can then lower the price. So the decisions related to change in plant size, process improvement and the training are also important. Strategies of our firm In oligopoly market, one important method to increase the market share is to keep the price lower than competitors price. However, because at the beginning of the game, our firm ignored the importance of the plant size, process improvement and the training, our production cost was higher than other firms. So we could not use theShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Raising Companies Finance For Their Operations Efficiently Without Affecting Its Profitability1486 Words   |  6 Pagesefficiently without affecting its profitability. Equity markets are places where willing buyers and sellers can meet for the purpose of making profit. Market efficiency is the high expectations of investors in every market place. Market places are where investors buy and sell companies and government securities. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Impact of Financial Rewards free essay sample

Topic: Impact of financial rewards on employee motivation in Kenyan Commercial Banks Thesis: Impact of financial reward system on employee motivation Thesis statement: Impact of financial reward system on employee motivation because employees are pillars of organization success and they must be motivated to contribute to organization success, organizations offer various reward systems to motivate employees. Outline I. Introduction3 A. Background 3 1. Motivation 3 2. Rewards3 3. Job Satisfaction4 4. Banks in Kenya5 I. Financial Rewards System on Employee Motivation5 A. Rewards and Recognition System5 B. Financial Rewards 7 C. Non-financial Rewards 7 D. Employee Motivation8 E. Remuneration9 II. Impact of Financial and Non-Financial Reward System on Employee Motivation 10 A. Employee Engagement10 III. Conclusion11 A. Recommendation 12 IV. Reference 13 I. Introduction A. Background 1. Motivation â€Å"Motivation is the desire to achieve beyond expectations, being driven by internal rather than external factors, and to be involved in a continuous striving for improvement†. (Torrington. et al, p. 276). Employees are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. To be effective, the reward system must recognize both sources of motivation. All reward systems are based on the assumptions of attracting, retaining and motivating people. Financial rewards are an important component of the reward system, but there are other factors that motivate employees and influence the level of performance. Several studies have found that among employees surveyed, money was not the most important motivator, and in some instances managers have found money to have a demotivating or negative effect on employees. Organizations are constantly looking for ways of enhancing their employee motivation. The employees of an organization are vital to the growth and success of the organization and in many cases, an organization success is defined by its employees (Bennet, 2002). This is also emphasized by Harvey Brown (2006) who argues that people are the foundation of every organization. Also, it is commonly said that people working for an organization, are the most valuable, the most costly, and the most volatile of all the resources that it can use to accomplish the organization’s objectives. Organizations need people to get things done (Bennet, 2002). 2. Rewards Flynn (1998) argued that rewards and recognition programs keep high spirits among employees, boosts up their morale and create a linkage between performance and motivation of the employees. The basic purpose of recognition and reward program is to define a system to pay and communicate it to the employees so that they can link their reward to their performance which ultimately leads to employee’s job satisfaction. Luthans Sommers (2005) and Edwards et al. (2006)` explained that rewards were received as an exchange of services between employee and employer. Traditionally employees’ job description and job specification determined rewards to maintain equity among employees within an organization and competitive in the marketplace Zain et al. (2009) The principle reward for performing work is pay received by the employee from the employer, many employers also have other reward packages of which wages and salaries are only a part of. The packages typically include bonuses, pension schemes, health insurance, allocated cars, beneficial loans, subsidized meals, profit sharing, share options and much more (Pitts, 2005). To ensure the reward system is effective and motivates the desired behaviors, it is essential to consider carefully the rewards and strategies utilized and ensure the rewards are linked to or based on performance. To be effective, any performance measurement system must be tied to compensation or some sort of reward. Rewarding performance should be an ongoing managerial activity, not just an annual pay-linked ritual. 3. Job Satisfaction Where job satisfaction, as defined by Lock (cited in Gruneberg, 1979, p. 3), is a pleasurable positive emotional state as a result of work appraisal from one’s job experiences. In order to maximize the overall performance of the company it is vital for an employer to understand what motivates the employees and how to increase their job satisfaction. It might however be challenging for a company to find out what motivates its employees, especially because different people are motivated by different things Different types of satisfaction will lead to different intentions and behaviors that arise from different types of motivation in getting different types of rewards (Luthans Sommers, 2005). Spector (1989) suggested that â€Å"employees can be satisfied with some elements of the job and simultaneously dissatisfied with others† (p. 10). Amabile et al. (1994) implied that employee who exhibits high job satisfaction is motivated by rewards and rewards supported work engagement (p. 950-967) Lin (2007) and Milne (2007)` recommended that rewards with outcome relationships were expected to vary based on employee satisfaction with their organization. 4. Banks in Kenya As at 31st December 2012, the banking sector comprised of the Central Bank of Kenya, as the regulatory authority, 44 banking institutions (43 commercial banks and 1 mortgage finance company MFC), 4 representative offices of foreign banks, 6 Deposit-Taking Microfinance Institutions (DTMs), 118 Forex Bureaus and 2 Credit Reference Bureaus (CRBs). Out of the 44 banking institutions, 31 locally owned banks comprise 3 with public shareholding and 28 privately owned while 13 are foreign owned as shown in Chart 1. The 6 DTMs, 2 CRBs and 118 forex bureaus are privately owned. The foreign owned financial institutions comprise of 9 locally incorporated foreign banks and 4 branches of foreign incorporated banks. I. Financial Rewards System on Employee Motivation A. Rewards and Recognition System â€Å"Reward is the benefits that arise from performing a task, rendering a service or discharging a responsibility. † (Pitts, 1995, p. 11. ) Pay is the most significant and motivating benefit that is received in return for performing a task or service. It is pay that motivates individuals to go out and seek work. Pay is also one of the few ways to set a mutually acceptable common value to the individual’s work contribution. Pay can also be a powerful de-motivator, if employees are not satisfied with the reward package, it will be hard for the company to recruit and retain good individuals. (Pitts, 1995, p. 11). Kenyan Commercial Banks are having problems in finding a suitable and functioning reward system that would motivate the employees in a proper way. The main problem has been the ability to retain experienced staff. In the banking industry employee’s retention is a key issue that affects all the players on an equal measure. Bank employees who are known as â€Å"bankers† hop from one bank to another looking for better pay. The reward types are decided by the upper management, and disseminated downwards to the line manager however decides how to implement the rewards to their juniors. The Kenyan Commercial Banks in today’s environment seek to determine the reasonable balance between employee commitment and performance to the organization. The reward and recognition programs serve as the most liable factor in keeping employees’ motivation high and passionate for their jobs. Oosthuizen (2001) stated that it is among the function of managers to motivate the employees successfully and influence their behavior to achieve organizational efficiency. La Motta (1995) is of the view that performance at job is the result of ability and motivation. Ability formulated through education, equipment, training, experience, ease in task and two types of capacities i. e. mental and physical. The performance evaluation and rewards are the factors that proved to be the bonding agents of the performance evaluation programs. According to Wilson (1994), the process of performance management is one among the key elements of total reward system. The reward system employed by most Commercial Banks consists of three types of rewards; profit sharing, personal salary increment and tangible recognition. All of these rewards have been in an out of use for the past five years, at some periods of time all three rewards have been in use at the same time. Profit sharing is paid out once an year together with the annual salary increment, which is determined by the appraisal system and the bank’s annual performance . B. Financial Rewards Financial motivation is the amount of effort other people (employers) gives to the person (employees) to motivate them. Financial motivators are efficient but the influence doesn’t last long. Non-financial motivators tend to have a longer impact as they are inherent and not imposed from outside. Entwistle (1987) is of the view that if an employee performs successfully, it leads to organizational rewards and as a result motivational factor of employees lies in their performance. Majority of the organizations require their employees to work according to the rules and regulations, as well as, job requirements that comply with full standards. The highly motivated employees serve as the competitive advantage for any company because their performance leads an organization to well accomplishment of its goals. Among financial, economic and human resources, human resources are more vital that can provide a company competitive edge as compared to others. According to Andrew (2004), commitment of all employees is based on rewards and recognition. Lawler (2003) argued that prosperity and survival of the organizations is determined through the human resources how they are treated. C. Non-financial Rewards Armstrong Murlis (2004) reflecting on non-financial motivation pointed out that money in itself has no non-financial meaning and acquires significant motivating power only when it comes to symbolize intangible goals. Kreitner Kinicki (2007) suggests that the effectiveness of money as an financial motivator depends on a number of circumstances, including the value and needs of individuals and their preference for different types of financial or non-financial rewards. Armstrong Murlis (2004) further commented that money is important to people because it is instrumental in satisfying a number of their most pressing needs. It is significant not only because of what they can buy but also a highly tangible method of recognizing their worth, thus, improving their self-esteem and gaining esteem of others. D. Employee Motivation Most of the commercial banks have gained the immense progress by fully complying with their business strategy through a well-balanced reward and recognition programs for employee. Deeprose (1994) argued that the motivation of employees and their productivity can be enhanced through providing them effective recognition which ultimately results in improved performance of organizations. The entire success of an organization is based on how an organization keeps its employees motivated and in what way they evaluate the performance of employees for job compensation. Managing the performance of employees forms an integral part of any organizational strategy and how they deal with their human capital (Drucker as cited in Meyer Kirsten, 2005). Today where every organization has to meet its obligations; the performance of employees has a very crucial impact on overall organizational achievement. In a demotivated environment, low or courageless employees cannot practice their skills, abilities, innovation and full commitment to the extent an organization needs. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) posts a view that the state of satisfaction and happiness is achieved by the employees only when they maximally put their abilities in performing the activities and functions at work. In this way motivated employees are retained with the organizations thus reducing extra costs of hiring. An intrinsically motivated individual will be committed to his work to the extent to which the job inherently contains tasks that are rewarding to him or her. And an extrinsically motivated person will be committed to the extent that he can gain or receive external rewards for his or her job. For an individual to be motivated in a work situation there must be a need, which the individual would have to perceive a possibility of satisfying through some reward. If the reward is intrinsic to the job, such desire or motivation is intrinsic. But, if the reward is described as external to the job, the motivation is described as extrinsic. E. Remuneration Good remuneration has been found over the years to be one of the policies the organization can adopt to increase their workers performance and thereby increase the organizations productivity. The performance of workers has become important due to the increasing concern of human resources and personnel experts about the level of output obtained from workers due to poor remuneration. This attitude is also a social concern and is very important to identify problems that are obtained in industrial settings due to non-challant attitudes of managers to manage their workers by rewarding them well to maximize their productivity. All efforts must be geared towards developing workers interest in their job so as to make them happy in giving their best to their work, this will ensure industrial harmony. In view of this, this study attempts to identify the influence that rewards have on workers performance in order to address problems arising from motivational approaches in organizational settings. For some reasons most organizations use external rewards to influence their workers. The assumption that workers tend to perform more effectively if their wages are related to performance which is not based on personal bias or prejudice, but on objective evaluation of an employee’s merit. Several techniques of measuring job performance have been developed; in general the specific technique chosen varies with the type of work. All these issues call for research efforts, to bring focus on how an appropriate reward package can jeer up or influence workers to develop positive attitude towards their job and thereby increase their productivity. Possibly the best means of understanding employees’ motivation is to consider the social meaning of work. In this respect, short-term goals and long-term goals of employees’ and employers’ may affect production variously. Giving attention to the manner in which rewards are distributed to employees’ are perceived is preferable to assume that reward means the same thing to all. Rewards that an individual receives are very much a part of the understanding of motivation. Research has suggested that rewards now cause job motivation and satisfaction, which leads to performance. It showed that though there was no significant difference in motivational level and job satisfaction across various categories of workers in different organizations. II. Impact of Financial and Non-Financial Reward System on Employee Motivation A. Employee Engagement Employee engagement is typically described as a high level of employee involvement, commitment to the organization and job satisfaction. Engaged employees value, enjoy and have pride in their work. They are more willing to help each other and the organization succeed; take additional responsibility; invest more effort in their jobs; share information with other employees; and remain with the organization than employees who are less engaged. Employee engagement and related variables, such as commitment and cooperation, have been found to be associated with organization performance. The primary focus of engagement efforts has mostly been on team-building programs, employee opinion surveys and non-financial rewards, egalitarian pay structures have been found to be related to employee cooperation, involvement, satisfaction and commitment. Considerable attention has been given to the identification of key drivers of Employee engagement and its linkage to the financial results. Engagement is creating prospect for human resources to attach with their managers, colleagues and organization. It‘s concern is to shape a milieu where employees are motivated and connected with their job in real caring manner to do a high-quality job. Engagement is a perception that places continuous improvement, change and flexibility at the empathy of what it means. Training and Career Development another important dimension in the process of engaging employees and this call for the dying need of formulating diversity conflict management policies. Performance of engaged employees lead the company towards customer satisfaction which ultimately direct an organization towards profitability or business outcomes (Bassi, 2010). They further argue that modern business anticipate their employees should be positive and take responsibility for developing their expertise. They are expected to be devoted to excellent performance appraisal standards. Organizations needed employees who are active, committed and enthralled to their job. (Ruth. et al,1998) promulgates that the management efficiently involve their employees in their works and receive high performance among employees. This can be done through right selection of candidates, proper training, power sharing, work-information sharing, knowledge or employee skills and performance rewards system. (Konard, 2006) claims in his study that how high-involvement work practices can contribute in effective employee engagement. High involvement work practices are the techniques used by the management to efficiently involve their employees in their works and receive high performance among employees. A company caring more for its customer contentment and is focused on customer than it can also drives employee to get more engaged. If there is no career progression or limited career advancement opportunities, then employees will definitely be disengaged at certain level and shall not remain committed with an organization. Organization’s repute as a good employer, availability of resources needed to perform job in high quality and communication of clear vision for long term success by the higher management are also critical factors in building employee engagement. (Paradise, 2008). III. Conclusion Employee motivation is one of the most essential parts in a company’s development and success. It is hence vital for an employer to understand what motivates the employees and how to maximize their overall job performance. I have come to the conclusion that there are two major factors that have a profound effect on work motivation in Kenyan Banks. One is intrinsic motivation which comes from inside the employee and is related to his or her feelings. Examples on this are personal growth, the feeling of achieving something, responsibility and freedom to act. The other factor is extrinsic motivation where outside factors such as salary, rewards and criticism motivate the employees. It is therefore important for a company to find out what motivates its employees so that it can plan a suitable reward system and gain better results. The right combination of immaterial and material rewards can boost up the employees work motivation and enhance their commitment to the company. A. Recommendation Managers in the organization must continually seek to understand the needs of their employees. Also financial rewards should be tied direct to the results that the employees achieve in the organization. Managers are also required to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of each payment system and decide where to put the emphasis on. On the other hand, a total reward system which includes non-financial and financial reward system describes a reward strategy that brings components such as learning and development together with aspects of the work environment into the benefits package. The purpose of total reward is to create a cluster where all the different reward systems are connected, complementary and mutually reinforcing each other. In order to achieve internal motivation, the total reward strategies should be financial and non-financially integrated with human resource activities, business strategies.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Jurassic Park Essays (757 words) - , Term Papers

Jurassic Park JURASSIC PARK Crichton, Michael Publisher: Ballantine Books City Where Published: New York Date of latest copy: 1990 Edition: First Ballantine Books Edition: December 1991. 399 Pages, Paperback I. A Brief Summary of the Plot. A billionaire has created a technique to clone dinosaurs. From the left behind DNA that his crack team of scientists and experts extract he is able to grow the dinosaurs in labs and lock them up on an island behind electrified fences. He has created a sort of theme park on the island which is located off the west coast of Costa Rica. The island is called Isla Nublar. He plans to have the entire planet come and visit his wondrous marvels. He asks a group of scientists from several different fields to come and view the park, but something terribly goes wrong when a worker on the island turns traitor and shuts down the power. II. A Description of the Most Important Aspects of the Contents. The main characters in the book are: John Hammond who is a billionaire developer who has used his resources to create the dinosaur filled island known as Jurassic Park. He is an old grandfather, and he dies in the book by a dinosaur known as a Procompsognathus. Dr. Alan Grant who is a renowned paleontologist who agrees to visit Jurassic Park only to find out it is the home of several Dinosaurs. Unlike the movie Dr. Grant loves kids in the book. He also had a of a beard. Dr. Ellie Sattler is a Paleobotinist and Alan Grant who is among the first people to tour Jurassic Park. Tim who is the 11 year old grandson of John Hammond. He is kind of geeky, into computers and loves Dinosaurs. (Reminds me of myself.) His 7 older sister is Alexis. She has a kind of tomboy attitude and loves base-ball Ian Malcom is the Mathematician that uses Chaos Theory to predict disastrous results. he only wears black and gray. He is presumably dead in Jurassic Park the book, but miraculously is in the sequel, The Lost World. Finally there is Dennis Nedry. He was the c omputer genius who's greed and ambition bring chaos to Jurassic Park. There are many other characters that played a big part in the book, but I thought they were the best and the plot revolved around them. The characters show the greatest difference in the movie and the book. There were many opposites in the characters and even the roles and elements of Tim and Lex were reversed. The book starts off when some of the dinosaurs have escaped form the island. John Hammond invites a group of scientists to the park. He also invites his grandchildren. Denis Nedry took a bribe from a rival company to get samples of Dinosaur DNA. In order to make his escape, he turns the power off, even the electric fences. All hell breaks loose when the humans try to warn a boat that it's transporting Dinosaurs to the mainland, and run away from them at the same time. III. The Significance of the Book to the Student. This book had plenty of significance in it, even though a lot of the elements that were significant were hidden. First of all this book thought us a few basic things about DNA. How it's the building blocks of life, and stuff can be cloned. Like that sheep, Dolly. Also it taught us what some scientific practices were about when different scientists visited the island. Suchexamples are paleontologists, paleobotanists, and mathematicians. 1 other thing that this book teaches the student is that it is a prime example of the differences between the movie and the book. And yes, the book was better. IV. Evaluation of the Book. Personally, I thought this was a great book. When I saw the movie, it was a blast. I loved the movie, but when I read the book for the first time I was blown away. This has been the second time I've read it and I must say it hasn't lost his touch. When I read the book the first time I was rooting for the different characters and all, and the second time I read it, it still kept those same elements. It still had it's flavor. That's what I loved about